SNC-Science-Overview

Aims,Objectives and Goals

The overall purpose of science education in Pakistan is to develop scientific literacy. The accomplishment of this goal within the school context can take place only if certain opportunities are presented. The following goals have  been  determined  for  science education in Pakistan:

  • Encourage students to develop a critical sense of wonder and curiosity about scientific and technological endeavours through inquiry;
  • Enable students to use science and technology to acquire new knowledge and to create opportunities to solve problems, so that they may improve the quality of their own lives and lives of others;
  • Prepare students to critically address social, economic, ethical, and environmental issues related to science and technology;
  • Develop in students, of varying aptitudes and interests, the knowledge of a wide variety of careers related to science, technology, and the environment.

 

Benchmarks

 

 

 

    1. STRAND 2: PHYSICAL SCIENCES

 

This strand focuses on students' understanding of what force, motion, and energy are and how these concepts are connected. Major topics developed in this strand include simple machines, types of motion, energy forms and their transformations, electricity and magnetism. It also focuses on the description, physical properties, and basic structure of matter. The major topics developed in this strand include concepts related to the basic description of objects, states of matter, phase changes, and the classification of matter.

 

Students will increase their understanding of the characteristics of objects and materials they encounter daily. Students gain an understanding about matter and energy, including their forms, the changes they undergo, and their interactions.

 

In all grades, students will develop the ability to use appropriate vocabulary related to physical world to communicate clearly about scientific and technological concepts.

  1.  

STRAND-3: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES

 

In Earth and Space Sciences, students recognize the relationship between the Earth, our solar system, and the universe. They know that the moon, sun and other stars appear to move relative to the Earth and that these movements correspond to the pattern of day and night, and the seasons. Students are naturally interested in everything around them. This curiosity leads them to observe, collect, and record information about the Earth and about objects visible in the sky.

 

In Grades IV-V, students study the regularities of interrelated systems of the natural world. In doing so, they develop understanding of basic laws, theories, and models that explain the world. By studying the Earth, students can make informed decisions about issues affecting the planet on which they live. They recognize that new technologies and observations change our explanations about how things in the natural world behave.

    1. CROSS-CUTTING ELEMENTS

 

Within this scope of content, students will be acquiring skills, attitudes and behaviors as well as creating links between science and their daily life activities.

Skills, attitudes and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) are cross-cutting elements which are interlinked with chapter contents and are reflected in students’ learning outcomes.

These elements are briefly discussed below:

 

SKILLS

In everyday life, we find ourselves wondering about nature, gathering information, devising and evaluating possible explanations for how  things  work  around  us,  and discussing ideas with others. These are human activities that reflect in many ways how scientists think and work.

Scientific inquiry is a way of learning about the natural world and the environment we live in. It involves the use of all senses to develop the skills of observing, labelling, comparing, describing and sorting, and to wonder about the differences and changes in everyday world. Students will be encouraged to communicate their findings in a variety of ways, including labelled drawings, pictorial graphs, oral and written forms. As their investigative skills develop, they will learn to predict, redesign their investigation, find solutions to their problems, collect data, analyze and interpret data and tell whether the result is  as expected or not, hence moving from deductive to inductive teaching. Students should be encouraged to reflect on their investigations, identify difficulties and suggest improvements.

 

It is therefore, intended that students will develop necessary skills, as they are encouraged to think scientifically rather than simply memorizing   and/or   studying scientific facts. Also it is expected from teachers that they will engage students in scientific inquiry to develop such skills.

      1. ATTITUDES

 

This strand refers to the students’ need for developing the attitudes or “habits of mind” that are considered essential for a meaningful study of science and its relationship to the society. These include: a commitment to the pursuit of knowledge and achievement of potential, resulting in a disposition towards striving to understand the world and how best one can make a positive contribution towards it; respect and concern for others and their rights, resulting in sensitivity to and concern for the  well-being  of  others.  By applying scientific concepts to natural and cultural environment students will demonstrate commitment to regenerative and sustainable resource use.

These attitudes have been incorporated into the students’ learning outcomes so as to enable them in making informed decisions and demonstrating responsible behaviours

      1. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM)

STEM is a curriculum based on the idea of educating students in four specific disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in an interdisciplinary and applied approach rather than teach these four disciplines as separate subjects. STEM integrates these disciplines into a cohesive learning paradigm based on real life applications. Here you will find a complete blend and essence of the four disciplines to help students find meaningful learning in their classroom scenarios

Progression Grid

Grade-IV

Grade-V

CHARACTERISTICS AND LIFE PROCESSES OF ORGANISMS

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS

Characteristics of major groups of living things

 

  • Compare and contrast characteristics that distinguish major groups of living things (plant and animals)
  • Classify animals in terms of vertebrates and invertebrates with examples and

analyze the differences  and  similarities in vertebrates and invertebrates.

  • Classify plants in terms of flowering

and non-flowering with examples and analyze the differences  and  similarities in flowering and non-flowering plants.

  • Recognize and appreciate diversity in life (both plants and animals) and

identify ways to protect diversity.

  • Describe classification of living organisms and its importance.
  • Classify the plants into two major

groups (dicots and monocots) and give examples of each group.

  • Compare and contrast the structure of a dicot and a monocot plant (with

respect to their seeds, leaves and flowers).

  • Differentiate between vertebrates and invertebrates based on their

characteristics.

  • Classify vertebrates into, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals on the basis of their characteristics.
  • Classify invertebrates into five groups (sponges, worms, insects, snails, and starfish) on the basis of their

characteristics.

  • Analyse some of the factors caused by Human which are affecting Biodiversity
  • Suggest and write some measures for conservation of endangered species.

Functions of major structures in living things

MICROORGANISMS

  • Identify major parts/organs in animals (teeth, bones, lungs, heart, stomach muscles, brain)
  • Relate the parts/organs of body

of animals to their functions (e.g., teeth break down food, bones support the

body, lungs take in air, the heart

circulates blood, the stomach helps to digest food, muscles move the body).

  • Define and describe microorganisms.
  • Identify the main groups of

microorganisms and give examples for each.

  • Recognize some common diseases of

each group caused by microorganisms.

  • Highlight the role of microorganisms in decomposition and discuss its harmful and beneficial effects.

 

Grade-IV

Grade-V

Functions of major structures in living things

MICROORGANISMS

  • Identify parts of a plant body (leaves, stem, flowers, seeds, roots).
  • Relate the structures of plants to their functions (i.e., roots absorb water and nutrients and anchor the plant, leaves make food, the stem transports water and food, flowers produce seeds, and seeds produce new plants).
  • Recognize that microorganisms get transmitted into humans and spread infectious diseases.
  • Discuss and deduce advantages and disadvantages (any 3) of

microorganisms by using some daily life examples.

  • Suggest preventive measure to protect him/herself from these infections.

 

FLOWERS AND SEEDS

 

  • Examine and Describe structure of a flower
  • Define pollination and describe its types with examples.
  • Define reproduction and differentiate between sexual and asexual

reproduction in plants.

  • Describe the structure of a seed and demonstrate its germination.
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of chick pea and Maize seed.
  • Illustrate the conditions necessary for seed germination.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

 

  • Define pollution and its types.
  • Explain the main causes of water, air and land pollution.
  • Explain the effects of water, air and land pollution (unclean/toxic water,

smoke, smog, excess CO2/other gases, open garbage dumps, industrial waste etc.) on the environment and life.

  • Discuss and explain the effects of burning fossil fuels and releasing greenhouse gases in air.
  • Differentiate between biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials.
  • Explain the impact of

non-biodegradable materials on the environment.

  • Investigate possibilities and suggest ways to reduce non-biodegradable materials.

 

 

Grade-IV

Grade-V

ECOSYSTEMS

 

Diversity of the conditions for life on Earth

 

  • Recognize what is an ecosystem (e.g., forests, ponds, rivers, grasslands and deserts).
  • Explain biotic (plants, animals and humans) and abiotic factor (light,

temperature, soil and water) and their linkages.

  • Analyse the way these biotic and

abiotic constituents create a balance to sustain any ecosystem.

  • Recognize the interactions between

animals and plants and the importance of maintaining balance within an

ecosystem.

 

Relationships in simple food chains

 

  • Describe a few food chains and analyse its structure to understand its function.
  • Describe the role of living things at

each link in a simple food chain (e.g., plants produce their own food; some

animals eat plants, while other animals eat the animals that eat plants).

  • Identify and describe common predators and their prey.

 

Competition in an ecosystem

 

  • Recognize and explain that some living things in an ecosystem compete with

each other for food and space.

  • Recognize the value of a balanced ecosystem.
  • Interpret that human actions such as urbanization, pollution and

deforestation affect food chains in an ecosystem.

  • Identify various actions and roles that humans can play in preserving various ecosystems.

 

 

 

Grade-IV

Grade-V

HUMAN HEALTH

 

Symptoms, transmission, and prevention of communicable diseases

 

  • Observe and recognize some common symptoms of illness (e.g., fever,

coughing and influenza).

  • Differentiate between contagious

diseases (hepatitis, T.B, influenza and non-contagious (polio, cancer)

  • Relate the transmission of common

communicable diseases (e.g., touching, sneezing, and coughing) to human

contact.

  • Explain some methods of preventing common diseases and their

transmission (e.g., vaccination, washing hands, wearing mask).

 

Ways of maintaining good health

 

  • Describe the importance of maintaining good health.
  • Recognize everyday behaviours that

promote good health (e.g., a balanced diet, drinking clean water, exercising regularly, brushing teeth, getting

enough sleep)

  • Define balanced diet and explain its components.
  • Identify common food sources included in a balanced diet (e.g., fruits,

vegetables, grains, milk and meat group).

  • Understand the value of clean drinking water and inquire about the factors

that generally make it unclean.

  • Explore a few ways that can help make water clean and suitable for drinking

(water filtration and boiling).

 

 

 

Grade-IV

Grade-V

MATTER AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF MATTER

States of matter and its characteristics

Physical changes observed in everyday life

  • Describe matter and its states.
  • Describe characteristics of each state of matter with examples.
  • Identify  observable  changes  in

materials that do not result in new materials with different properties

(e.g., dissolving, crushing aluminium can).

  • Recognize that matter can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling (candle wax).
  • Describe and demonstrate the states of water (i.e., melting, freezing, boiling,

evaporation,  and  condensation).

  • Identify ways of accelerating the

process of dissolving materials in given amount of water and provide reasoning (i.e., increasing the temperature,

stirring, and breaking the solid into

smaller pieces increases the process of dissolving).

  • Distinguish between strong and weak concentrations of simple solutions.

Physical properties as a basis of classifying matter

Chemical changes observed in everyday life

  • Compare and sort objects and

materials on the basis of physical

properties (e.g., mass, volume, states of matter, ability to conduct heat or

electricity, ability to float or sink in water).

  • Explore the properties of metals (i.e. appearance, texture, color, density).
  • Identify properties of metal

(conducting heat and electricity) and

relate these properties to use of metals (i.e. a copper electrical wire, an iron

cooking pot).

  • Identify observable changes in

materials that make new materials with different properties (e.g., decaying,

burning, rusting).

  • Differentiate between physical and chemical changes with examples.

 

 

Grade-IV

Grade-V

FORMS OF ENERGY AND ENERGY TRANSFER

LIGHT AND SOUND

Common sources and uses of energy

 

  • Identify sources of energy (e.g., the

Sun, flowing water, wind, coal, oil, gas).

  • Recognize that energy is needed to do work, (e.g. for moving objects), heating and lighting.
  • Describe and demonstrate the transformation of energy.
  • Understand the importance of energy conservation.
  • Recognize the role and responsibility of humans to conserve energy resources.
  • Identify natural and artificial sources of light.
  • Justify that light emerges from a source and travels in a straight line.
  • Investigate luminous and

non-luminous objects in daily life.

  • Identify and differentiate between

transparent, opaque and translucent objects in their surroundings.

  • Investigate that light travels in a straight line.
  • Explain the formation of shadows.
  • Predict the location, size and shape of a shadow from a light source relative to

the position of objects.

  • Demonstrate that shiny surfaces reflect light better than dull surfaces.
  • Describe and demonstrate how sound is produced by a vibrating body.
  • Identify variety of materials through which sound can travel.
  • Identify that speed of sound differs in solids, liquids and gaseous medium.
  • Define and describe the intensity of sound with examples.
  • Define noise and its harmful effects on human health.
  • Appreciate the role of human beings in reducing noise pollution.

Light and sound in everyday life

 

  • Relate familiar physical phenomena (i.e., shadows, reflections, and

rainbows) to the behaviour of light.

  • Relate familiar physical phenomena (i.e., vibrating objects, echoes) to the production and behaviour of sound.

 

Heat transfer

 

  • Recognize that warmer objects have a higher temperature than cooler

objects.

  • Investigate the changes that occur

when a hot object is brought in contact with a cold object.

  • Identify ways to measure temperature and understand its unit.

 

 

 

Grade-IV

Grade-V

Electricity and simple electric circuits

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

  • Describe and demonstrate that

electrical energy in a circuit can be

transformed into other forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, sound).

  • Explain and provide reasoning that a simple electric circuit requires a

complete electrical pathway.

  • Explain the phenomenon of static electricity in everyday life.
  • Describe charges and their properties.
  • Differentiate between conductors and insulators in daily life.
  • Describe flow of electric current in an electric circuit.
  • Describe and design an electric circuit and explain its components.
  • Recognize that magnets can be used to attract some metallic objects
  • Describe and demonstrate that

magnets have two poles and like poles repel and opposite poles attract.

  • Identify earth as huge magnet and demonstrate it with experiment.
  • Describe the working of a magnetic compass.
  • Explain different types of magnets

(permanent, temporary magnet and electro-magnet).

FORCES AND MOTION

 

Familiar forces and the motion of objects

 

  • Describe force and motion with examples from daily life
  • Identify gravity as a force that draws objects to Earth.
  • Investigate that frictional force works against the direction of motion.
  • Provide reasoning with evidence that friction can be either detrimental or useful under different circumstances.

 

Simple machines

 

  • Recognize that simple machines, (e.g., levers, pulleys, gears, ramps) help

make motion easier (e.g., make lifting things easier, reduce the amount of

force required, change the distance, or change the direction of the force).

 

 

 

Grade-IV

Grade-V

THE EARTH AND ITS RESOURCES

STRUCTURE OF EARTH

Physical characteristics of Earth - Earth’s resources

 

  • Recognize that earth’s surface is  made up of land and water and is surrounded by air.
  • Recognize that water in rivers and streams flows from mountains to oceans or lakes.
  • Identify some of Earth’s natural

resources that are used in everyday life (e.g., water, wind, soil, forests, oil,

natural gas, minerals).

  • Recognize that some remains (fossils) of animals and plants that lived on

Earth a long time ago are found in rocks, soil and under the sea.

  • Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources
  • Investigate the impact of human

activities on Earth’s natural resources

  • Suggest the ways to conserve the natural resources.
  • Describe the structure of the Earth (i.e., crust, mantle, and core) and the

physical characteristics of these distinct parts.

  • Describe the sources of water on Earth.
  • Identify similarities and differences among the different types of soil.
  • Investigate the composition and characteristics of different soils.

EARTH’S WEATHER AND CLIMATES

 

  • Understand the difference between weather and climate.
  • Relate weather (i.e., daily variations in temperature, humidity, precipitation in the form of rain or snow, clouds, and wind) changes with changing

geographical  location.

  • Recognize that average temperature and precipitation can change seasons and location.

 

 

Grade-IV

Grade-V

EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

SPACE AND SATELLITES

Objects in the Solar System and their movements

 

  • Describe and demonstrate the Solar System with planets revolving around the sun.
  • Identify the sun as a source of heat and light for the Solar System
  • Recognize that the earth has a moon

that revolves around it, and from earth the moon looks different at different

times of the month.

  • Define the term ‘space’ and emphasize the need to explore it
  • Recognize the role of NASA (National

Aeronautics and Space  Administration) in space exploration.

  • Define the term ‘satellite’ and describe its importance.
  • Describe the natural satellites of the planets of the solar system.
  • Define artificial satellites and explain

their importance in exploring the Earth and space.

  • Recognize the key milestones in space technology.
  • Describe the uses of various satellites in space i.e. geostationary, weather,

communication and Global Positioning System (GPS).

Earth’s motion and related patterns observed on Earth

 

  • Investigate and explain how day and night are related to Earth’s daily

rotation about its axis, and provide evidence of this rotation from the changing appearance of shadows during the day.

  • Describe how seasons in Earth’s

Northern and Southern hemispheres

are related to Earth’s annual movement around the Sun.

 

Solar and Lunar eclipses

 

  • Illustrate and explain how solar and lunar eclipses occur.

 

 

 

Grade-IV

Grade-V

TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

TECHNOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Basic Craft making (out of paper, cardboard, reeds, packing material etc.)

Technical model making (out of clay, paper, reed board, reeds, packing material)

  • Practice techniques of folding, cutting, tearing and pasting papers, cardboard to make objects and patterns
  • Design paper bags, envelopes, cards and face mask.
  • Enlist and practice safety procedures while carrying out the activities
  • Make a model of foot bridge and bookshelf
  • Use spirit level/water level to level

different objects (table, picture, frame etc.)

  • Use a plumb line to install a flag pole vertically.

Basic technical model making (out of clay)

Making Technical Devices

  • Design models of sphere, cube, prism, cylinder and cone with clay or play

dough.

  • Prepare LED light strings working with 12 volt battery
  • Make a musical instrument from easily available resources
  • Make moveable wagon, bus, trolley etc.

Technical activities

First aid and disaster management

  • Design hammer, wheels, rollers and gears using clay or play dough
  • Operate tablets/mobile phones for use of calculator, alarm clock and calendar
  • Operate mobile phones for taking snap shots
  • Use first aid box to dress a wound.
  • Practice Shifting a person to hospital
  • Practice earth quake, fire and flood drill

Elementary first aid

 

  • Recognize the items of first aid box.
  • Use digital and clinical thermometer externally to measure body

temperature.

  • Check blood pressure by digital blood pressure monitor