SNC-Science-Grade 4

GRADE IV

 

Contents

Students' Learning Outcomes

Suggested Activities

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Chapter 1

 

Characteristics and life processes of organisms

 

1. Characteristics of major groups of living things

All the students should be able to:

  • Compare and contrast characteristics that distinguish major groups of living things(plants and animals)
  • Classify animals in terms of vertebrates and invertebrates with examples and analyze the differences and similarities in vertebrates and invertebrates.
  • Classify plants in terms of flowering and

non-flowering with examples and analyze the differences and similarities in flowering and non-flowering plants.

  • Recognize and appreciate diversity in life (both plants and animals) and identify ways to protect diversity.
  • Construct a scrap book collecting plants/animals’ pictures and classifying  them as well. Which of them can you find in Pakistan?

 

  • Observe animals and plants  from your surrounding area  and  study their characteristics and behaviors. (Where did you see them, where do they

live, what do they eat?)

 

  • Use small pots to plant few seeds, provide water and sunlight, observe their growth and record changes.

Animals with Backbone   and without Backbone: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=anO fA-R8qb8

 

Flowering & Nonflowering Plants: https://study.com/a cademy/lesson/flow ering-nonflowering- plants-lesson-for-ki ds.html

2. Functions of major structures in living things

  • Identify major parts/organs in animals (teeth, bones, lungs, heart, stomach muscles, brain).
  • Relate the parts/organs of body of animals to their functions (e.g., teeth break down food, bones support the body, lungs take in air, the heart circulates blood, the stomach helps to digest food, muscles move the body).
  • Cut out the pictures of different organs. Paste and label them onto the Human outline diagram and write functions of each organ.

Body Organs:

Teeth https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=1gQ 29tgXlJI

 

Lungs: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=C-k 4N78UJkw

Note: In case of student with disabilities, activities will be adapted according to the requirements of the child.

 

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  • Identify parts of a plant (leaves, stem, flowers, seeds, roots).

 

  • Relate the structures of plants to their functions (i.e., roots absorb water and nutrients  and anchor the plant, leaves make food, the stem transports water and food, flowers produce seeds, and seeds produce new plants).
  • Take two similar plants, and place one in regular water and  the other in colored (ink) water for  a few days. Observe any changes. Cut the stems and discuss the differences.
  • Imagine that you woke up one morning and found all the plants withered. Write a story about what happens after that.
  • Explore what makes humans different from plants with respect to movement and obtaining food.

Parts of a Plant: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=X6T LFZUC9gI

 

 

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Chapter 2

All the students should be able to:

  • Distribute animal and plant pictures (or name cards) among students and  place different chart sheets representing different ecosystems. Take turns placing the animals/plants on the different ecosystem charts.

 

Ecosystems

 

1. Diversity of the conditions for life on Earth

 

  • Recognize what is an ecosystem (e.g., forests, ponds,    rivers, grasslands and deserts).

 

  • Explain biotic (plants, animals and humans) and abiotic factors (light, temperature, soil and water) and their linkages.

 

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  • Analyse the way these biotic and abiotic constituents create a balance to sustain any ecosystem.
  • Using the materials used in the above activity, select the picture with a balanced ecosystem and remove one of its biotic or abiotic components. Now ask students to discuss in groups about the  impact it will have on an ecosystem. Once the students have discussed, ask them to present their findings as a group (by selecting one group presenter)
  • Celebrate earth day/ tree plantation day/green day/cleanliness day/ water day etc.

 

  • Recognize the interactions between animals and plants and the importance of maintaining balance within an ecosystem.

2. Relationships in simple food chains

  • Describe a few food chains and analyse their structure to understand its function.
  • Construct a model or create a chart by  pasting pictures  of animals  and plants in a simple food chain using common plants and animals from familiar ecosystems, such as a forest or a desert. Using these models/charts allow students to observe and discuss the food chain so that they can understand how a food chain works.
  • Show some time lapse video showing the concept of prey, predator or survival of the fittest.

Food chain: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=hLq 2datPo5M

 

  • Describe the roles of living things at each link in a simple food chain (e.g., plants produce their own food; some animals eat  plants, while other animals eat the animals that eat plants).

 

 

  • Identify and describe common predators and their prey.

 

 

 

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3. Competition in an ecosystem

  • Recognize and explain that some living things in an ecosystem compete with each other for food and space.
  • Recognize the value of a balanced ecosystem.
  • Interpret that human actions such as urbanization, pollution and deforestation affect food chains in an ecosystem.
  • Identify various actions and roles that humans can play in preserving various ecosystems.

 

 

 

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Chapter 3 Human Health

1. Symptoms, transmission, and prevention of communicable diseases

All the students should be able to:

  • Observe and recognize some common symptoms of illness (e.g., fever, coughing and influenza).
  • Differentiate between contagious diseases (hepatitis, T.B, influenza, and polio) and

non-contagious (cancer, and diabetes)

  • Relate the  transmission of  common communicable diseases (e.g.,   touching, sneezing, and coughing) to human contact.
  • Explain some methods of preventing common diseases and their transmission (e.g., vaccination, washing hands, wearing mask).
  • Ask  the  students to keep a ‘health’ journal  over  a week and list one new thing they do every day to keep themselves healthy (wash hands,  eat  well, get enough sleep).
  • Design a menu for a school lunch and give reasons to explain why each food was chosen.
  • Create a diet plan for the student’s own well-being.
  • Plan and conduct an interview with a Physician to discuss healthy life style.
  • Visit your kitchen/School canteen and identify hazards which may cause diseases.

Coughing: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=sBj6 kLHvm-U

 

 

 

Wash Your Hands: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=Nox dS4eXy18

 

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2. Ways of maintaining good health

  • Describe the importance of maintaining good health.
  • Recognize everyday behaviours   that promote good health (e.g., a balanced diet, drinking clean water, exercising regularly, brushing teeth, getting enough sleep)
  • Define balanced diet and explain its components.
  • Identify common food sources included in a balanced diet (e.g., fruits, vegetables, grains, milk and meat group).
  • Understand the value of clean  drinking  water and inquire about the factors that generally make it unclean.
  • Explore a few ways that can help make water clean and suitable for drinking (water filtration and boiling).

 

Balanced Diet: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=Yim uIdEZSNY

 

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Chapter 4

 

Matter and its characteristics

 

1. States of matter and its characteristics

All the students should be able to:

  • Describe matter and its states (solid, liquid, gas).
  • Describe characteristics of each state of matter with examples.
  • Demonstrate changes in state of matter on heating and cooling in an experiment.
  • Classify the

materials (wood , red syrup,  saw dust,  stone, balloon, plasticine, aluminum foil, cotton, oil)  and write the reason why has it been categorized.

States of Matter: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=wcl Y8F-UoTE

States of matter: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=Nzs

_Oc_dzps

2.    Physical properties as a basis of classifying matter

  • Compare and sort objects and materials on the basis of physical properties (e.g., mass, volume,  states  of matter,  ability  to conduct heat or electricity, ability to float or sink in water).

 

 

 

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  • Explore the properties of metals (i.e. appearance, texture, color, density).
  • Identify properties of metal (conducting heat and electricity) and relate these  properties to use of metals (i.e. a copper electrical  wire, an iron cooking pot).

 

 

 

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Chapter 5

 

Forms of energy and energy transfer

 

1. Common sources and uses of energy

  • Identify sources of energy (e.g., the Sun, flowing water, wind, coal, oil, gas).
  • Recognize that energy is needed to do work,(e.g. for moving objects), heating and lighting.
  • Describe and demonstrate the transformation of energy.
  • Understand the importance of energy conservation.
  • Recognize the role and responsibility of humans to conserve energy resources.
  • Design an activity to show transmission of energy. Make a paper windmill/ pinwheel. Demonstrate that blowing air into the pinwheel generates motion and is a ‘transmission’ of energy.
  • Observe different electrical   objects in the classroom and discuss what form  of  energy they produce from electricity.

Different sources of energy: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=wM OpMka6PJI

 

 

Energy to do work: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=vAT huCmwp9I

2. Light and sound in everyday life

  • Relate familiar physical phenomena (i.e., shadows, reflections, and rainbows) to the behaviour of light.
  • Relate familiar physical phenomena (i.e., vibrating objects, echoes) to the production and behaviour of sound.
  • Use a prism, mirror and magnifying glass to investigate how light behaves.
  • Design a musical instrument using easily available materials.

 

 

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  • Use string/paper cups to create a simple telephone. And use rubber bands with a small box to create a simple music instrument.

 

 

Light Shadow & Reflection: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=zH0j xo1q3Ww

3.  Heat transfer

  • Recognize that warmer objects have a higher temperature than cooler objects.
  • Investigate the changes that occur when a hot object is brought in contact with a cold object.
  • Identify ways to measure temperature and understand its unit.
  • Take a steel spatula and place in hot water. Heat will transfer from the tip of the spatula to the handle.

Heat Energy: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=xGK g3TSO4v8

4. Electricity and simple electric circuits

  • Describe and demonstrate that electrical energy in a circuit can be transformed into other forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, sound).
  • Explain and provide reasoning that a simple electric circuit requires a complete electrical pathway.
  • Construct a simple electric circuit by using wire,  bulb and battery.

Simple    electric circuit: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=CXr 9gFaeHgg

 

Contents

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Chapter 6

 

Forces and Motion

 

1.  Familiar  forces and the motion of objects

All the students should be able to:

  • Describe force and motion with examples from daily life
  • Identify gravity as a force that draws objects to Earth.
  • Investigate that friction force works against the direction of motion.
  • Provide reasoning with evidence that  friction can be either detrimental or useful under different circumstances.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Design a

hover-craft using the concept of friction. (With the help of balloon and CD/paper plate).

 

 

 

 

What is Friction: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=C7N PD9W0kro

 

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  • Design rubber band wheel car and try it on different surfaces. Use talcum powder on the same surfaces to demonstrate the effect of friction.

 

2.  Simple machines

  • Recognize that simple machines, (e.g., levers, pulleys, gears, ramps) help  make  motion easier (e.g., make lifting things easier, reduce the amount of  force required, change the distance, or change the direction of the force).
  • Make simple levers to lift objects (such as books) in the classroom.

Simple machines: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=fvO maf2GfCY

 

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Chapter 7

 

Earth and its resources

 

1. Physical characteristics of Earth

  • Recognize that earth’s surface is made up of land and water in and is surrounded by air.
  • Recognize that water in rivers and streams flows from mountains to oceans or lakes.

 

 

2. Earth’s resources

  • Identify some of Earth’s natural  resources  that are used in everyday life (e.g., water, wind, soil, forests, oil, natural gas, minerals).
  • Recognize that some remains (fossils) of animals and plants that lived on Earth a long time ago are found in rocks, soil and under the sea.
  • Differentiate between renewable and

non-renewable resources

  • Investigate the impact of human activities on Earth’s natural resources
  • Suggest the ways to conserve the natural resources.
  • Ask students to identify a simple everyday object they use or are familiar with (furniture, shoes, books,   clothes etc). Discuss the various resources used in making it. Which of these are non-renewable? What  would happen if we run out of these resources?
  • Help students create their own fossils using ‘plaster of paris’, paper cups and a small toy or object that can fit inside the cup.

 

 

Earth's Resources - Air, Water, Land: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=071l UxclTBw

 

 

What are fossils: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=agl4 8Q6xMmA

 

Contents

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Chapter 8

 

Earth’s Weather and Climates

 

1. Weather and climate

All the students should be able to:

  • Understand the difference between weather and climate.
  • Relate that weather (i.e., daily variations in temperature, humidity, precipitation in the form of rain or snow, clouds, and wind) changes with changing geographical location.
  • Recognize that average temperature and precipitation can change seasons and location.

 

  • Measure the temperature every day for  a  week and observe other weather  conditions such as rain, sun, cloud- cover, hail storm and make a weather chart. Sample given above(Robotics)

Changes in Weather: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=ML3 6o23u9uA

 

 

The Science of Clouds: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=dnL 5LPil77M

 

Contents

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Chapter 9

 

Earth in the Solar System

 

1. Objects in the Solar System and their movements

All the students should be able to:

  • Describe and demonstrate the Solar System with the sun at the centre and the planets revolving around the sun.
  • Identify the sun as a source of heat and light for the Solar System
  • Recognize that the earth has a moon that revolves around it, and from earth the moon looks different at different times of the month.
  • Using clay or plasticine or any such material and prepare models of Solar system and Phases of moon.
  • Study the web link and prepare working model of solar system and related concepts.

The Solar System Planets: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=ASQ kz4XaphU

2. Earth’s motion and related patterns observed on Earth

  • Investigate and describe how day and night are related to Earth’s daily rotation about its axis, and provide evidence of this rotation from the changing appearance of shadows during the day.
  • Describe how seasons in Earth’s Northern and Southern  hemispheres are related to Earth’s annual   movement around the Sun.

 

Earth's Revolution & Rotation: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=EXa sopxAFoM

 

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3. Solar and Lunar eclipses

  • Illustrate and explain how solar and lunar eclipses occur.
  • Design models of solar and lunar eclipses.

Eclipses: https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=cK7 zieTA5Sk

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Chapter 10

 

Technology in everyday life

 

1.  Basic craft making

  • Practice techniques of folding, cutting, tearing and pasting papers, cardboard to make objects and patterns
  • Design paper bags, envelopes, cards and face mask.
  • Practice making things out of paper at home

 

2. Basic technical model making

  • Design models of sphere, cube, prism, cylinder and cone with clay or play dough.
  • Design hammer, wheels, rollers and gears using clay or play dough
  • Make clay toys at home and school. Use water soluble paints to  colour the toys.

 

3.  Technical activities

  • Operate tablets/mobile phones for use of calculator, alarm clock and calendar
  • Operate mobile phones for taking snap shots
  • Use of mobile phone can be given as a homework.

 

4. Elementary first aid

  • Recognize the items of first aid box.
  • Use digital and clinical thermometer externally to measure body temperature.
  • Check blood pressure by digital blood pressure monitor